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Patient Care


One needs to extract their teeth due to mobility or decay. After tooth extraction following precautions to be taken for rapid and uncomplicated healing.

  • You should bite on the gauge for 45 min after extraction.
  • You should not eat any hard or hot and spicy foods for 24hrs.
  • You should avoid spitting and gargling for 24 hrs.
  • To protect the clot and for rapid healing, you should avoid smoking for 2-4 days.
  • You should also avoid sucking with straw to prevent negative pressure for 24 hrs.
  • You should not brush the extraction site for 24hrs.
  • You should eat soft and nutritious food and should drink lots of fluids for rapid recovery.
  • You should keep an ice pack on the side of extraction to reduce swelling.
  • To control discomfort pain medication should be taken before the anesthetic effect is worn off.
  • Antibiotics should be taken as prescribed by the doctor to prevent infection.
  • It is normal to experience swelling after extraction, if the swelling is not subsiding or increasing after 3days you should consult the doctor immediately.
  • You should gargle with warm salt water for 3-4 times 24 hrs after extraction.

Dentures are artificial substitute for natural teeth. But dentures should not be compared to natural teeth in function.
• Initially dentures will feel strange, they may feel bulky.
• You may feel tongue space is compressed. But they are all temporarily; as you get used to denture you feel them normal.
• You may feel difficulty in talking for first few days, you should practice speech by talking and reading news paper loudly with dentures.
• Increased salivation will be there initially, you should swallow and should not spit repeatedly.
• Initially you should eat only soft food.
• You should cut food into small pieces and eat with your back teeth from both sides.
• Dentures should be cleaned with soft brush and should not use paste.
• You should wash dentures after every meal.
• You should not mishandle the dentures. You should keep tub of water or towel while cleaning dentures to prevent damage if accidentally fell down.
• You should not wear dentures at night. Dentures should be kept in water when they are outside the mouth.
• If you develop any soreness with denture you should discontinue the denture and consult us immediately.
• Last but not the least, you should never compare dentures with others, because their oral and systemic conditions may be totally different from yours.


Caring For My Teeth

Why are my teeth so important?
Your teeth vary in shape and size depending on where they are in your mouth. These differences allow the teeth to do many different jobs. Teeth help us to chew and digest food. They help us to talk, and to pronounce different sounds clearly. Finally, teeth help to give our face its shape. A healthy smile can be a great asset; and because this is so important, it makes sense to give your teeth the best care possible.

What can go wrong?
Tooth decay can be painful and lead to fillings, crowns or inlays. If tooth decay is not treated, the nerve of the tooth can become infected and die, causing an abscess. This may then need root canal treatmentor even for the tooth to be removed. It is very important that you keep up a good routine at home to keep your teeth and gums healthy. Gum diseaseis common and, if left untreated, may lead to bone loss around the teeth. In some cases it may lead to loose teeth and teeth being lost. Gum disease is preventable. It can be treated and kept under control with regular cleaning sessions and check-ups, preventing further problems. If teeth are lost, it may be necessary to fill the gaps with bridges, dentures or implants.

How do I keep my teeth and gums healthy?
It is easy to get your mouth clean and healthy, and keep it that way. A simple routine can help prevent most dental problems:

  • •    brushing your teeth last thing at night and at least one other time during the day, with a fluoride toothpaste
  • •    cleaning between the teeth with ‘interdental' brushes or floss at least once a day
  • •    good eating habits - having sugary foods and drinks less often, and
  • •    regular dental check-ups.

Although most people brush regularly, many don't clean between their teeth and some people don't have regular dental check-ups. A few small changes in your daily routine can make a big difference in the long term. Your dental team can remove any build-up on your teeth and treat any gum disease that has already appeared. But daily dental care is up to you, and the main weapons are the toothbrush, toothpaste and interdental cleaning (cleaning between your teeth).

What is plaque?
Plaque is a thin, sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on your teeth.

How can plaque cause decay?
When you eat foods containing sugars and starches, the bacteria in plaque produce acids, which attack tooth enamel. The stickiness of the plaque keeps these acids in contact with your teeth. After constant acid attack, the tooth enamel breaks down forming a hole or cavity.

How can plaque cause gum disease?
If plaque is not removed by brushing, it can harden into something called ‘calculus' - another name for it is 'tartar'. As calculus forms near the gumline, the plaque underneath releases harmful poisons causing the gums to become irritated and inflamed. The gums start to pull away from the teeth and the gaps become infected. If gum disease is not treated promptly, the bone supporting the teeth is destroyed, and healthy teeth can become loose and fall out. Severe gum disease can lead to teeth falling out and needing to be replaced.

How can I prevent gum disease?
It is important to remove plaque and bits of food from around your teeth as this will stop your gums from becoming inflamed and swollen, and becoming infected. If you leave plaque on your teeth it can harden into tartar, which can only be removed by the dental team. It is important to keep up your regular appointments so that your teeth can have a thorough cleaning if they need it.

Which type of toothbrush should I use?
Your dental team will be able to recommend a toothbrush suitable for you. However, adults should choose a small- to medium-sized brush head. This should have soft to medium, multi-tufted, round-ended nylon bristles or 'filaments'. The head should be small enough to reach into all parts of the mouth: especially the back of the mouth where it can be difficult to reach. Children need to use smaller brushes but with the same type of filaments.
You can now buy more  specialized toothbrushes. For instance, people with sensitive teeth can now use softer-bristled brushes. There are also smaller-headed toothbrushes for people with crooked or irregular teeth.
Some people find it difficult to hold a toothbrush, for example because they have Parkinson's disease or a physical disability. There are now toothbrushes which have large handles and angled heads to make them easier to use.

How do I know if I have gum disease?
Gum disease is generally painless, even though it damages the bone supporting the teeth. Gum disease (gingivitis) will usually show itself as red, swollen gums that bleed when you brush or clean between your teeth. Many people are worried when they notice their gums are bleeding and then brush more gently, or stop altogether. In fact, it is important that you continue to clean regularly and thoroughly if you are to fight the gum disease. If the bleeding does not go away within a few days see your dental team to ask for their advice.

How do electric toothbrushes work?
A power brush has an oscillating rotating or vibrating head, which provides a large amount of cleaning action with very little movement needed from the user, although you do need to position the brush correctly.

Why is brushing important?
Daily brushing and cleaning between your teeth is important because it removes plaque. If the plaque isn't removed, it continues to build up, feeding on the bits of food left behind and causing tooth decayand gum disease.

Do electric toothbrushes clean better?
Tests have shown that power toothbrushes are more effective at removing plaque. Those with heads that rotate in both directions ('oscillating' heads) are the most effective. Everyone can use a power brush. They are particularly useful for people with limited movement of the arm or hand, such as disabled or elderly people, who often find that using a normal toothbrush does not allow them to clean thoroughly. Power brushes can also be better for children as they may be more likely to brush regularly because of the novelty of using a power brush. Discuss the idea with your dental team to find out if you would benefit from using a power brush.

How should I brush?
Brushing removes plaque and bits of food from the inner, outer and biting surfaces of your teeth.
Here is one way to remove plaque – discuss with your dental team which is the best for you:
1.    Place the head of your toothbrush against your teeth, then tilt the bristle tips to a 45-degree angle against your gumline. Move the brush in small circular movements, several times, on all the surfaces of every tooth.
2.    Brush the outer surface of each tooth, upper and lower, keeping the bristles angled against your gumline. 
3.    Do this again, but on the inside surfaces of all your teeth. To clean the inside surfaces of your front teeth, tilt the brush vertically and make several small, circular strokes with the front part of the brush.
4.    Brush the biting surfaces of your teeth. 
5.    Brush your tongue to help freshen your breath and clean your mouth by removing bacteria.

How often should I brush my teeth?
Be sure to brush thoroughly with a fluoride toothpaste last thing at night and at least one other time during the day. If you regularly keep getting discomfort or bleeding after brushing you should see your dentist.

How do I know if I have removed all the plaque?
You can stain the plaque with special dye, which you can paint onto your teeth with a cotton bud, or you can use special disclosing tablets. You can get these from your dental practice or pharmacy. The stain is harmless and will show any areas of your mouth which need better brushing. Look particularly at where your teeth and gums meet. Further brushing will remove the stained plaque.

How often should I change my toothbrush?
Worn-out toothbrushes cannot clean your teeth properly and may damage your gums. It is important to change your toothbrush every two to three months, or sooner if the filaments become worn. When bristles become splayed, they do not clean properly.

Should I use a fluoride toothpaste?
Yes. Fluoride helps to strengthen and protect teeth, which can reduce tooth decay in adults and children.

What sort of toothpaste should I use?
As well as regular family toothpastes, there are many specialized toothpastes. These include tartar control for people who get tartar build-up, and a choice of toothpastes for people with sensitive teeth. ‘Total care' toothpastes include ingredients to help fight gum disease, freshen breath and reduce plaque build-up. ‘Whitening' toothpastes are good at removing staining to help restore the natural color of your teeth, but are not strong enough to change the natural shade of the teeth.
Some children's toothpastes only have about half the fluoride that adult toothpastes have. They only give limited protection for the teeth. If your children are under 7 you should supervise them when they brush their teeth. Encourage them not to swallow the toothpaste and to just spit, not rinse, after brushing.
To have a clean and healthy mouth you need to use the correct dental-care products. Ask your dental team to tell you what choices there are and to give their recommendations.

How much toothpaste should I use?
You do not need to cover the head of your brush in toothpaste. A pea-sized amount is enough. Children should use a pea-sized smear of toothpaste.

How should I clean between my teeth?
You can clean between your teeth with an ‘interdental’ brush or dental floss. Dental tape is thicker than floss and many people find it easier to use. Cleaning in between your teeth removes plaque and bits of food from between your teeth and under your gumline – areas a toothbrush can't reach. You should clean between your teeth at least once a day. Your dental team can show you proper interdental cleaning techniques.

The following suggestions may help with flossing:
Break off about 45 centimeter (18 inches) of floss, and wind most of it around one of your middle fingers. Wind the remaining floss around the same finger of the other hand. As you use the floss, you will take up the used section with this finger.
Hold the floss tightly between your thumbs and forefingers, with about an inch of floss between them, leaving no slack. Use a gentle 'rocking' motion to guide the floss between your teeth. Do not jerk the floss or snap the floss into the gums. 
When the floss reaches your gumline, curve it into a C-shape against one tooth until you feel resistance. 
Hold the floss against the tooth. Gently scrape the side of the tooth, moving the floss away from the gum. Repeat on the other side of the gap, along the side of the next tooth. 
Don't forget the back of your last tooth.
When flossing, keep to a regular pattern. Start at the top and work from left to right, then move to the bottom and again work from the left to right. This way you're less likely to miss any teeth. At first it also helps to look in the mirror.
It is also very important to clean around the edges of any crowns, bridges or implants. This can be difficult to do effectively using traditional floss and there are now specialized  flosses to do the job thoroughly. Ask your dental team which product to use and how to use it properly.

Should my gums bleed whenI clean in between my teeth?
Your gums may bleed or be sore for the first few days that you clean between your teeth. This should stop once the plaque is broken up and the health of your mouth has improved. If the bleeding does not stop, tell your dental team. It may be that you are not cleaning correctly, or that your teeth and gums need a more thorough clean by your dental team.

Are 'oral irrigators' useful?
Oral irrigators use a stream or jet of water to remove plaque and bits of food from around your teeth. They can be particularly helpful if you wear an orthodontic appliance (‘brace') or a fixed bridge that is difficult to clean, or if you find it difficult to use interdental brushes or floss.

Should I use a mouthwash?
A fluoride mouthwash can help prevent tooth decay.Your dental team may recommend an antibacterial mouthwash to help control plaque and reduce gum disease. If you find that you are regularly using a mouthwash just to freshen your breath see your dental team, because bad breathcan be a sign of unhealthy teeth and gums or of poor general health.

Can my diet help?
Many people think that it is a high level of sugar in your diet that causes decay, but this is not true. It is how often you have sugar in your diet, not the amount, that causes problems. It takes up to an hour for your mouth to cancel out the acid caused by eating and drinking sugar. During this time your teeth are under attack from this acid. It is therefore important to limit the number of attacks by having sugary foods and drinks just at mealtimes. Chewing sugar-free gum and drinking water after meals or snacks can also help to cancel out the acid more quickly.
As well as causing decay, sugary fizzy drinks, fruit juices, sports drinks, and wine can be acidic - which can also cause ‘dental erosion'. This is when the acid in foods and drinks gradually wears away the hard enamel coating of the tooth. This may lead to the tooth being sensitive.

How should I clean my dentures?
It is just as important to clean dentures as it is to clean your natural teeth. Food can become caught around the edges of dentures and clasps, and the food can rot if you do not clean them thoroughly.
You should keep a separate toothbrush for cleaning your dentures. The general rule is: brush, soak and brush again. Clean your dentures over a bowl of water in case you drop them. Brush your dentures before soaking them, to help remove any bits of food. Soak the dentures in a specialist cleaner for a short time and then brush the dentures again. Brush them like you would your natural teeth. Make sure you clean all the surfaces of the dentures, including the surface which fits against your gums. If you notice a build-up of stains or scale, have your dentures cleaned by your dental team. Most dentists still recommend a small- to medium-headed toothbrush.

I have implants, do I have to do anything special?
Your dental team or oral surgeon will tell you how to care for your implants after surgery. It is very important to make sure you clean them regularly and thoroughly to prevent gum disease and possible infection. Follow the instructions your dental team or oral surgeon gives you.

Why should I visit the dental team regularly?
It is always better to prevent problems rather than have to cure them when they happen. If you visit your dental team regularly you will need less treatment and they will spot any problems earlier, making any treatment easier.

Final words
Good dental health begins with you. By following these simple tips you can keep your mouth clean and healthy:
Brush your teeth for two minutes, last thing at night and at least one other time during the day, using fluoride toothpaste.
Use a toothbrush with a small- to medium-sized head.
Use a toothbrush with soft to medium, multi-tufted, round-ended nylon bristles.
Consider using a power toothbrush.
Use small, circular movements to clean your teeth.
Change your toothbrush regularly, and at least every 3 months.
Clean between your teeth every day using interdental brushes or dental floss.
Have sugary drinks and foods less often.
Visit your dental team regularly, as often as they recommend.



If you want a smile that’s your crowning glory, you may need a crown to cover a tooth to help restore it to its normal shape and size. A crown can make your tooth stronger and improve its appearance.
A crown can help strengthen a tooth with a large filling when there isn’t enough tooth remaining to hold the filling. Crowns can also be used to attach bridges, protect a weak tooth from breaking or restore one that’s already broken. A crown is a good way to cover teeth that are discolored or badly shaped. It’s also used to cover a dental implant.
If your dentist recommends a crown, it is probably to correct one of these conditions. Your dentist’s primary concern, like yours, is helping you keep your teeth healthy and your smile bright.

Types of Dental Crowns:

There are four different types of dental crowns.
Ceramic : These are used for restoring front teeth, and are popular in this area for their ability to blend with your natural tooth color. The crown is made of a porcelain-based material.
Porcelain-fused to metal : This crown provides a stronger bond than regular porcelain because it is connected to a metal structure. It's also extremely durable.
Gold alloys : This crown is a mix of gold, copper and other metals. In addition to providing a strong bond to the tooth, it doesn't fracture, nor does it wear away the tooth itself.
Base metal alloys :This crown is made up of non-noble metals that are highly resistant to corrosion, and make for a very strong crown. It also requires the least amount of healthy tooth to be removed prior to fitting.

Crown Types:
Your dentist is key to sustaining good oral hygiene so that you won't have to choose from these different types of dental The sealing ability of the all-porcelain crown depends on the filling materials and the quality of the underlying tooth, according to the American Dental Association (ADA), whereas the other three provide particularly good seals against leakage.
Durability is best in the gold and metal alloys crowns, whereas the all-porcelain crown tends to be less strong, more suseptibleif it is put under enough pressure (if you grind your teeth at night, this may pose a problem). By contrast, the crown of porcelain fused to metal offers better durability. Both porcelain-based crowns are highly resistant to wear, but they can quickly aggravate opposing teeth if the adjacent surface becomes rough. Incidentally, the gold and metal alloys are resistant to wear and gentle on opposing teeth at the same time.
Though they sometimes become loose or fall out, crowns can last a lifetime if properly maintained. The best way to achieve this is through proper oral health. Brushing and flossing twice a day are your go-to methods of keeping your teeth healthy every morning and night. Use a toothbrush such as the to keep your teeth spotless, especially your back molars. Above all, scheduling regular checkups withcrowns.

What is crown?
A crown (“cap”) is a toothshaped dental restoration that is used for capping or completely encasing a single damaged tooth or dental implant. Also called “dental caps” and “porcelain jackets”, they can be made from a variety of materials and are permanently bonded to their foundation with dental cement, avoiding the need for tooth extraction, bridges, partials or dentures. They cannot be used for full-mouth restoration.

Why are Teeth Capped?
They are commonly used to:
Protect a tooth that is weak from wear and tear and/or decay from further damage
Hold a fractured or broken tooth together
Cover a large filling that involves half of the tooth or more
Support a dental bridge
Restore a tooth after a root canal procedure to prevent fracturing
Hide severely discolored or misshapen teeth when veneers cannot
Cap off and complete a dental implant procedure
Relieve the pain experienced as a result of cracked tooth syndrome

Types and Benefits:
The types available are differentiated by the materials used to make them, each with its own purposes and benefits.
Stainless Steel:
This type of crown is generally used as a temporary solution, most often in pediatric dentistry. Because primary teeth (baby teeth) are necessary for the positioning of permanent teeth, stainless steel ones are used to protect them from further decay until they fall out naturally.
Commonly a gold alloy, palladium, or other base-metal alloy such as chromium or nickel, metal crowns are typically used for back molars as individuals want their metallic color to be out-of-sight. They have thinner walls, so they requireless tooth reshaping and removal prior to fitting. They stand up better to chewing, rarely chip, last the longest and cause very little damage to opposing teeth.
Porcelain Fused to Metal:

Consisting of a metal shell with a heat-fused porcelain exterior, these crowns are used for both front and back teeth since they can be color-matched and appear more natural. They are more susceptible to chipping and can cause stress or damage to opposing teeth. Sometimes the metal underneath the porcelain can be seen as a dark line near the bottom edge of the crown. If the gum recedes, it can become even more noticeable at the gum line.
Made from a number of natural materials including types of feldspar and zirconia, all-ceramic crowns look the most lifelike as they provide a closer color match. They are also biocompatible, making them an option for those who are allergic to metal. Similar to porcelain, they are less durable and can crack or chip.
These are made from composite resin, most commonly acrylic polymers mixed with silicon dioxide. They are the most affordable option. The acrylics used can be color-matched to natural teeth, but they are less durable and more susceptible to fractures.
The Procedure:

First Visit – Consultation:
During the first visit, a dentist will examine the tooth and its root to determine whether or not a crown is a suitable method of restoration and if additional procedures will be required to make it a success. For example, a tooth with a compromised root can cause an infection or injure the tooth’s pulp, in which case a root canal might be necessary. The examination may involve analyzing X-rays and impressions of the patient’s bite. Depending on the severity or nature of the situation, the dentist may refer the patient to a specialist such as a periodontist, oral surgeon or orthodontist for further examination. Once it has been decided that capping a tooth is the best option, the dentist will proceed with preparation.

The procedure begins by numbing the tooth with local anesthesia, followed by preparing the tooth so that it can support the crown. This includes reshaping the tooth by either filing down the enamel or applying a filling to build it up if it is too damaged or decayed. The amount removed or added depends on the type that will be used. A dental impression is taken and sent to a lab that uses it to design and manufacture it. An impression of the surrounding teeth is also taken to ensure that it perfectly integrates with your bite. A temporary crown made of acrylic is placed to protect the tooth until you return. It typically takes 2-3 weeks for it to be fabricated.

Temporary Care:
Between visits it is important to take care of the temporary cap in order to protect the prep work performed underneath it. The design of the permanent crown is based on the size, shape and condition of the tooth before the temporary crown is placed, so it is important to take a few precautions. This includes avoiding sticky, chewy or hard foods that may dislodge the temporary crown, pulling floss out rather than up during cleaning to avoid pulling the crown off and chewing on the opposite side of the mouth.
Second Visit:
During the second visit, the dentist will remove the temporary cap and a local anesthetic may or may not be administered. After removal, the dentist will check the fit and color before permanently cementing it in place. This is done with precision, as any gaps between the crown and the tooth can allow bacteria to grow, causing further decay and increasing the likelihood of a fracture.
The process may take more than 2 visits or require longer sessions if your situation requires special procedures such as a root canal, orthodontic treatment or gum treatment.
Recovery and Post-Procedure Care:
After the procedure, patients may experience some sensitivity to hot and cold. This can be alleviated by brushing with toothpaste designed for sensitive teeth. If you experience pain or discomfort when biting down, it may not be aligned properly and another trip to the dentist is necessary. Unfortunately, crowned teeth are not decay-proof. They susceptible to fracture and gum disease just like any other tooth. Proper and consistent dental care is the best way to maintain the crown, including brushing, flossing and a healthy diet. They usually last between 5 and 15 years. The primary factors that affect how long they last are your oral hygiene and any mouth-related habits including clenching/grinding, biting fingernails and chewing ice.
Potential Problems:
After the procedure, a number of problems can occur that require returning to the dentist for repairs or replacement restorations. Crowns can chip, become loose and even fall off. Usually seen in all-porcelain crowns, chipping can be repaired with composite resin. A replacement may be necessary if the damage is extensive. A crown can become loose or detach due to improper placement, a lack of cement or cement washing out from under it. These issues can usually be fixed by re-cementing it in place. If not, a new crown willbe made. If the problem is ignored for too long, the underlying tooth may experience further damage, in which case the procedure must be redone.
They can take some getting used to, but crowns eventually look, feel and function just like normal teeth. If you have any concerns or questions after the procedure, contact your dentist.



Dental Health and Root Canals

What is a Root Canal?
A root canal is a treatment used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or becomes infected. During aroot canal procedure, the nerve and pulp are removed and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed. Without treatment, the tissue surrounding the tooth will become infected and abscesses may form.
"Root canal" is the term used to describe the natural cavity within the center of the tooth. The pulp or pulp chamber is the soft area within the root canal. The tooth's nerve lies within the root canal.
A tooth's nerve is not vitally important to a tooth's health and function after the tooth has emerged through the gums. Its only function is sensory -- to provide the sensation of hot or cold. The presence or absence of a nerve will not affect the day-to-day functioning of the tooth. 

Why Does Tooth Pulp Need to Be Removed?
When a tooth's nerve tissue or pulp is damaged, it breaks down and bacteria begin to multiply within the pulp chamber. The bacteria and other decayed debris can cause an infection or abscessed tooth.Anabscess is a pus-filled pocket that forms at the end of the roots of the tooth. An abscess occurs when the infection spreads all the way past the ends of the roots of the tooth. In addition to an abscess, an infection in the root canal of a tooth can cause:
•    Swelling that may spread to other areas of the face, neck, or head
•    Bone loss around the tip of the root
•    Drainage problems extending outward from the root. A hole can occur through the side of the tooth with drainage into the gums or through the cheek with drainage into the skin.

What Damages a Tooth's Nerve and Pulp in the First Place?
A tooth's nerve and pulp can become irritated, inflamed, and infected due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures on a tooth, and/or large fillings, a crack or chip in the tooth, or trauma to the face.

What Are the Signs That a Root Canal Is Needed?
Sometimes no symptoms are present; however, signs you may need a root canal include:

  •     Severe toothache pain upon chewing or application of pressure
  •     Prolonged sensitivity/pain to heat or cold temperatures (after the hot or cold has been removed)
  •     Discoloration (a darkening) of the tooth
  •    Swelling and tenderness in the nearby gums
  •    A persistent or recurring pimple on the gums

What Happens During a Root Canal?
A root canal requires one or more office visits and can be performed by a dentist or endodontist. An endodontist is a dentist who specializes in the causes, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and injuries of the human dental pulp or the nerve of the tooth. The choice of which type of dentist to use depends to some degree on the difficulty of the root canal procedure needed in your particular tooth and the general dentist's comfort level in working on your tooth. Your dentist will discuss who might be best suited to perform the work in your particular case.
The first step in the procedure is to take an X-ray to see the shape of the root canals and determine if there are any signs of infection in a surrounding bone. Your dentist or endodontist will then use local anesthesia to numb the area near the tooth. Anesthesia may not be necessary, since the nerve is dead, but most dentists still anesthetize the area to make the patient more relaxed and at ease.

How Painful Is a Root Canal?
Root canal procedures have the reputation of being painful. Actually, most people report that the procedure itself is no more painful than having a filling placed. 

What Should One Expect After the Root Canal?
For the first few days following the completion of a root canal, the tooth may feel sensitive due to natural tissue inflammation, especially if there was pain or infection before the procedure. This sensitivity or discomfort usually can be controlled with over-the-counter pain medications such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (Aleve). Most patients can return to their normal activities the next day.
Until your root canal procedure is completely finished -- that is to say, the permanent filling is in place and/or the crown, it's wise to minimize chewing on the tooth under repair. This step will help avoid recontamination of the interior of the tooth and also may prevent a fragile tooth from breaking before the tooth can be fully restored.
As far as oral health care is concerned, brush and floss as you regularly would and see your dentist at normally scheduled intervals. 

How Successful Are Root Canals?
Root canal treatment is highly successful; the procedure has more than a 95% success rate. Many teeth fixed with a root canal can last a lifetime.
Also, because the final step of the root canal procedure is application of a restoration such as a crown or a filling, it will not be obvious to onlookers that a root canal was performed. 

Complications of a Root Canal:
Despite your dentist's best efforts to clean and seal a tooth, new infections might emerge after a root canal. Among the likely reasons for this include:

  • •    More than the normally anticipated number of root canals in a tooth (leaving one of them un-cleaned)
  • •    An undetected crack in the root of a tooth
  • •    A defective or inadequate dental restoration that has allowed bacteria to get past the restoration into the inner aspects of the tooth and re-contaminate the area
  • •    A breakdown of the inner sealing material over time, allowing bacteria to re-contaminate the inner aspects of the tooth

Sometimes retreatment can be successful, other times endodontic surgery must be tried in order to save the tooth. The most common endodontic surgical procedure is an apicoectomy or root-end resection. This procedure relieves the inflammation or infection in the bony area around the end of your tooth that continues after endodontic treatment. In this procedure, the gum tissue is opened, the infected tissue is removed, and sometimes the very end of the root is removed. A small filling may be placed to seal the root canal. 

Alternatives to a Root Canal:
Saving your natural teeth is the very best option, if possible. Your natural teeth allow you to eat a wide variety of foods necessary to maintain proper nutrition. The root canal procedure is the treatment of choice.
The only alternative to a root canal procedure is having the tooth extracted and replaced with a bridge, implant, or removable partial denture to restore chewing function and prevent adjacent teeth from shifting. These alternatives not only are more expensive than a root canal procedure but require more treatment time and additional procedures to adjacent teeth and supporting tissues. 

Root Canal Prevention:
Since some of the reasons why the nerve of a tooth and its pulp become inflamed and infected are due to deep decay, repeated dental procedures on a tooth and/or large fillings, following good oral hygiene practices (brushing twice a day, flossing at least once a day, and scheduling regular dental visits) may reduce the need for a root canal procedure. Trauma resulting from a sports-related injury can be reduced by wearing a mouth guard.


What is Cracked Teeth:They are many different types of cracked teeth. Cracked teeth show a variety of symptoms, including erratic pain when chewing, possibly with release of biting pressure, or pain when your tooth is exposed to temperature extremes. In many cases, the pain may come and go, and your dentist may have difficulty locating which tooth is causing the discomfort.
nIf you are experiencing these dental symptoms or suspect a cracked tooth, see an endodontist, who specializes in saving cracked teeth.


Symptoms of Gangivitis:Many people aren’t aware that they have’s possible to have gum disease without any symptoms of gingivitis:



  1. •    gums that are red, tender, or swollen.
  2. •    gums that bleed easily when you brush or floss your teeth.
  3. •    a change in the color of your gums from a healthy pink to dusky red .
  4. •    pus between teeth and gums.
  5. •    Pain when chewing. 
  6. •    loose teeth.
  7. •    sensitive teeth.
  8. •    gums that have pulled away from the teeth.
  9. •    Recurring bad breath (or) bad taste in their mouth. 


Causes of Gingivitis :The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene that encourages plaque to form. Plaque is an invisible, sticky film composed mainly of bacteria. Food can be trapped in this space and causes a gum infection or gingivitis.  Brushing your teeth at least twice a day and flossing each day removes plaque. Plaque requires daily removal because it re-forms quickly, usually within 24 hours.
Plaque that stays on your teeth longer than two or three days can harden under your gumline into calculus. Calculus can also develop resulting from the mineral content in your saliva. Calculus makes plaque more difficult to remove and creates a protective shield for bacteria. You usually can't get rid of calculus by brushing and flossing  you need a professional dental cleaning to remove it.
The longer that plaque and calculus remain on your teeth, the more they irritate the gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth. In time, your gums become swollen and bleedeasily. This can cause injury to the soft tissue and bone supporting the teeth. Thetooth may becomes loose an unstable .
Risk factors:Gingivitis is common, and anyone can develop it. Many people first experience gum problems during puberty and then in varying degrees throughout life.
The following are risk factors for gingivitis:



  1. •    Lack of oral hygiene such as not brushing or flossing regularly encourages bacterial build up and plaque formation
  2. •    Smoking or chewing tobacco.
  3. •    Diabetes.
  4. •    Consuming certain medications. 
  5. •    Hormonal changes, such as these related to pregnancy, your menstrual cycle or use of birth control pills. 
  6. •    Certain viral or fungal infections.
  7. •    Poor nutrition.
  8. •    Dental appliances that fit poorly


Diagnosis of gingivitis:Dentists usually diagnose gingivitis based on symptoms and an examination of your teeth, gums, mouth and tongue. Your dentist will look for plaque and tartar buildup on your teeth and check your gums for redness, puffiness and easy bleeding.
If it's not clear what has caused your gingivitis, your dentist may recommend that you get a medical evaluation to check for underlying health conditions.
Treatment to Gingivitis :The dentist or dental hygienist will clean your teeth. The may use different tools to loosen and remove deposits from the teeth.careful oral hygiene is necessary after professional tooth cleaning. The dentist or hygienist will show you how to brush and floss.


  1. •    Having professional teeth cleaning in addition to brushing and flossing twice a year, or more often for worse cases of gum disease.
  2. •    Using antibacterial mouth rinses or other aids.
  3. •    Getting misaligned teeth repaired.
  4. •    Replacing dental and orthodontic appliances.


Complications of Gingivitis:Untreated gingivitis can progress to gum disease that spreads to underlying tissue and bone (periodontitis), a much more serious condition that can lead to tooth loss.Periodontitis and poor oral health in general may also affect your overall health. Gingivitis is associated with an increased risk of diabetes. Heart attacks, lung disease. Premature birth or having a baby with low birth weight, in women.



Do you suffer from Tooth Sensitivity?
Do your teeth twinge when you eat or drink certain foods? Do you suffer from aching teeth due to tooth sensitivity? Is your sensitivity a daily problem or perhaps just an occasional annoyance? Chances are you have "dentine hypersensitivity," another name for sensitive teeth.
Sensitivity is a common dental problem. It's not a disease, but rather a condition that develops over time due to common factors such as receding gums, over vigorous tooth brushing and tooth grinding. Most sufferers are between 20 and 50 years old.

Whether your dentine hypersensitivity is chronic or just an infrequent occurance, Sensodyne can help. This site can help you find answers to all your questions, as answered by our own network of dental care professionals.

What Causes Sensitive Teeth?
Tooth Sensitivity is Caused by the Exposure of Dentine
Tooth sensitivity is caused by the gradual exposure of the softer part of your tooth that lies under the tooth enamel, called "dentine".

Dentine has tiny tubes ('tubules') that contain nerve endings and are filled with fluid. Eating or drinking foods and drinks that are hot, cold or sweet can cause this fluid to move. This fluid movement causes the nerve endings to react in response, triggering a twinge of discomfort or a short, sharp sting.
Some of the most common dental conditions that can cause sensitive teeth include:
Brushing Too Hard
Dental hygiene habits such as brushing too frequently, too vigorously or with a hard-bristled toothbrush can eventually wear down tooth enamel. These can also cause receding gums, causing further exposure of the dentine. 
Gum Disease (Gingivitis)
When gum tissue becomes inflamed and weakened from gingivitis (gum disease), you might have sensitive gums and may feel tooth sensitivity because more of the underlying dentine root surface is exposed.    Teeth Grinding
If you grind your teeth when you sleep, or if you clench your teeth throughout the day, you may be wearing down enamel and exposing the underlying dentine layer of your tooth.
Receding Gums
A receding gum near the sensitive tooth, caused by conditions such as periodontal disease, can expose the tooth's dentine and cause sensitivity. Brushing too vigorously or frequently can also cause receding gums.

Understanding Your Teeth
Your Enamel and Sensitive Teeth
Exposure of your tooth's dentine is the cause of regular or occasional nerve tooth ache and sensitivity, which can be quite annoying.
Dentine lies just below the enamel. Thousands of microscopic tubes run through the dentine. Once dentine is exposed, the nerves within these tubules may become susceptible to triggers such as cold food or drinks resulting in a short, sharp nerve sting in the tooth.
"Dentine hypersensitivity" is the feeling of discomfort when you stimulate the exposed dentine of the tooth and your teeth hurt from exposure to that stimuli.

Good Oral Health Begins with Understanding Your Teeth

With Sensodyne :Sensodyne with Potassium creates a barrier to the sensation of discomfort and, with regular brushing, builds long-lasting protection.

Without Sensodyne :Nerves within the tooth are triggered by hot and cold stimuli due to worn enamel or receding gums
Sensitivity Triggers
Are Your Teeth Sensitive to Cold Food?
Are they sensitive to hot and cold foods? Are they sensitive to hot and cold drinks or sweet and sour drinks? A range of things can trigger a twinge or occasional tooth ache for people with sensitive teeth. 

67% of people experience a twinge or discomfort when eating cold food or drinking cold drinks
35% of people experience a twinge or discomfort when eating hot food or drinking hot drinks
51% of people experience a twinge or discomfort  when breathing in cold air
47% of people experience a twinge or discomfort when eating sugary food

 Some people will even experience tooth sensitivity when brushing their teeth, particularily if rinsing with cold water

Managing Sensitivity
Learn How to Manage Sensitive Teeth
If your teeth are sensitive, there are several simple but important steps you can take today to treat sensitive teeth.

?    Practice good oral hygiene, including proper brushing and flossing, to prevent conditions such as periodontal disease, which can cause receding gums.

?    Use a toothpaste specially formulated to treat sensitive teeth.

?    Don't brush too hard.

?    Use a softer toothbrush, preferably one suitable for people with sensitive teeth.

?    Avoid having excess acidic foods that can wear away tooth enamel, such as fruit juices and soft drinks.

?    Avoid grinding your teeth or clenching during the day. Ask your dentist about a mouth guard for nighttime use.

How Sensodyne Works
Sensodyne toothpastes work in one of three ways to relieve the discomfort of sensitive teeth. This depends on the product's active ingredient, which is either Potassium Nitrate or, for Sensodyne Rapid Relief, Strontium Acetate, or for Sensodyne Repair & Protect, patented NovaMin® technology

Potassium Nitrate
To protect against tooth sensitivity every time you eat and every time your drink, you need all day sensitivity protection.
Sensodyne® toothpaste provides all day, every day sensitivity protection when used twice daily.
The potassium ion in Sensodyne® toothpaste builds a protective barrier and prevents transmission of nerve impulse to brain which results in relief from sensitivity.

Can My Dentist Do Anything for Sensitive Teeth?
To be sure your tooth sensitivity is not the result of a more serious condition, such as gingivitis (gum disease), it's a good idea to make an appointment to get a checkup and dentist recommendations for sensitive teeth. Once your dentist has confirmed that it is tooth sensitivity, here's what your dentist can do to help.
More Than Just a Nuisance?
While they can be quite excruciating, sensitive teeth symptoms are rarely much more than a nuisance. 

Often, making simple changes such as adopting better oral hygiene habits, using a toothpaste for sensitive teeth, cutting down on acidic foods in your diet and brushing less vigorously can make all the difference.


Definition:An X-ray is a quick, painless test that produces images of the structures inside your body — particularly your bones.

X-ray beams pass through your body, and they are absorbed in different amounts depending on the density of the material they pass through. Dense materials, such as bone and metal, show up as white on X-rays. The air in your lungs shows up as black. Fat and muscle appear as shades of gray.
For some types of X-ray tests, a contrast medium — such as iodine or barium — is introduced into your body to provide greater detail on the images.

Types of X-Rays:X-ray technology is used to examine many parts of the body.
Bones and teeth

  • Fractures and infections.In most cases, fractures and infections in bones and teeth show up clearly on X-rays.
  •  Arthritis. X-rays of your joints can reveal evidence of arthritis. X-rays taken over the years can help your doctor determine if your arthritis is worsening.
  • Dental decay. Dentists use X-rays to check for cavities in your teeth.
  •  Osteoporosis. Special types of X-ray tests can measure your bone density.
  • Bone cancer. X-rays can reveal bone tumors.


  • Lung infections or conditions. Evidence of pneumonia, tuberculosis or lung cancer can show up on chest X-rays.
  •  Breast cancer. Mammography is a special type of X-ray test used to examine breast tissue.
  •  Enlarged heart. This sign of congestive heart failure shows up clearly on X-rays.
  •  Blocked blood vessels. Injecting a contrast material that contains iodine can help highlight sections of your circulatory system to make them visible on X-rays.


  •  Digestive tract problems. Barium, a contrast medium delivered in a drink or an enema, can help reveal problems in your digestive system.
  •  Swallowed items. If your child has swallowed something like a key or a coin, an X-ray can show the location of that object.

Risk factors:
Radiation exposure
Some people worry that X-rays aren't safe because radiation exposure can cause cell mutations that may lead to cancer. The amount of radiation you're exposed to during an X-ray depends on the tissue or organ being examined. Sensitivity to the radiation depends on your age, with children being more sensitive than adults.
Generally, however, radiation exposure from an X-ray is low, and the benefit from these tests far outweigh the risks.

However, if you're pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant, tell your doctor before having an X-ray. Though the risk of most diagnostic X-rays to an unborn baby is small, your doctor may consider another imaging test, such as ultrasound.
Contrast medium
In some people, the injection of a contrast medium can cause side effects such as:

  •    A feeling of warmth or flushing
  •    A metallic taste
  •    Lightheadedness
  •    Nausea
  •    Itching
  •    Hives

Rarely, severe reactions to a contract medium occur, including:

  •    Severe low blood pressure
  •    Anaphylactic shock
  •    Cardiac arrest

Preparation for X-Ray:Different types of X-rays require different preparations. Ask your doctor or nurse to provide you with specific instructions.

What to wear
In general, you undress whatever part of your body needs examination. You may wear a gown during the exam, depending on which area is being X-rayed. You may also be asked to remove jewelry, eyeglasses and any metal objects because they can show up on an X-ray.
Contrast material
Before some types of X-rays, you're given a liquid called contrast medium. Contrast mediums, such as barium and iodine, help outline a specific area of your body on the X-ray image. You may swallow the contrast medium or receive it as an injection or an enema.



Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) inflammatory condition that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, swollen tissues; or open sores. These lesions may cause burning, pain or other discomfort.

Oral lichen planus can't be passed from one person to another. The disorder occurs when the immune system mounts an attack against cells of the oral mucous membranes for unknown reasons (autoimmune disorder).

Symptoms can usually be managed, but people who have oral lichen planus need regular monitoring because they may be at risk of developing mouth cancer in the affected areas.


Signs and symptoms of oral lichen planus affect the mucous membranes of the mouth.


     • The lesions may appear as:

     • Lacy, white, raised patches of tissues

     • Red, swollen, tender patches of tissues

     • Open sores


      • These lesions may appear on the:

      • Inside of the cheeks, the most common location

      • Gums

      • Tongue

      • Inner tissues of the lips

      • Palate

Pain or discomfort:

The red, inflamed lesions and open sores of oral lichen planus can cause a burning sensation or pain. The white, lacy patches may not cause discomfort when they appear on the inside of the cheeks but may be painful when they involve the tongue.

Other signs or symptoms:

      • Other signs or symptoms may include:

      • Change in taste or a blunted taste sensation if the tongue is affected

      • Sensitivity to hot or spicy foods

      • Bleeding and irritation with tooth brushing

     • Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis)

Other types of lichen planus:

If you have oral lichen planus, you may have lichen planus lesions affecting other parts of your body.

      • Skin: Lesions usually appear as purplish, flat-topped bumps that are often itchy.

     • Genitals: Lesions on the female genitalia often cause pain or burning and discomfort with intercourse. The lesions are usually red and eroded and occasionally appear as white areas. This can lead to scarring and loss of normal vaginal function and an inability to have intercourse.

      • Ears: Lichen planus of the ears can lead to hearing loss.

      • Scalp: When skin lesions appear on the scalp — a rare condition — they may cause temporary or permanent hair loss.

      • Nails: Lichen planus of the toenails or fingernails, also rare, may result in ridges on the nails, thinning or splitting of nails, and temporary or permanent nail loss.

Eyes: Rarely, lichen planus may involve the mucous membrane surfaces of the eyes, and can cause a loss of tear duct function and scarring of the eyelids.

Esophagus: Lichen planus of the esophagus also is rare, but when it occurs, it may result in a narrowing of the esophagus or the formation of tightened, ring-like bands in the esophagus that can make swallowing difficult.

When to see a doctor:

See your doctor or dentist if you:

Notice sores inside your mouth that don't heal

Have white or red patches in your mouth

Have mouth pain

Have repeated bleeding in your mouth when brushing or flossing

Notice any change in the way your mouth looks and feels

Have lesions or sores on your skin, genitals, scalp or nails

Develop unexplained scarring of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that covers the white part of your eyeball

Develop ear canal inflammation (otitis) that does not respond to treatment or does not have an apparent diagnosis or cause


The cause of oral lichen planus is unknown. T lymphocytes — certain white blood cells involved in inflammation — are normally active at the site of disease or injury and cause the lesions. Doctors and researchers don't know what prompts T lymphocytes to be activated in oral lichen planus. However, in some people, certain factors, such as those below, may trigger an inflammatory disorder.

Hepatitis C infection and other types of liver disease

Hepatitis B vaccine

Allergy-causing agents (allergens), such as foods, dental materials or other substances

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen (Aleve, others)

Certain medications for heart disease, high blood pressure or arthritis

Risk factors

Some factors can increase the likelihood of developing oral lichen planus.

Middle-aged women are most often affected, although anyone can develop oral lichen planus.

Having a disorder that compromises your immune system may increase your risk of developing oral lichen planus.

Genes may play a role in the development of oral lichen planus.


Factors that may complicate the condition or worsen symptoms include:

Tobacco products
Rough dental work
Poorly fitting dentures
Poor oral habits, such as biting the lip or cheeks
Buildup of dental plaque or tartar
In addition, oral lichen planus may increase the risk of oral cancers, particularly a type known as squamous cell carcinoma. To help prevent cancer, take these actions:
Get oral cancer screenings annually or as directed by your doctor.
 • If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Talk to your doctor to see if you should avoid alcohol completely.
If you use any tobacco products, quit. Talk to your doctor if you need help ending a tobacco habit.


Oral health: A window to your overall health

Your oral health is more important than you might realize. Get the facts about how the health of your mouth, teeth and gums can affect your general health.

Taking good care of your mouth, teeth and gums is a worthy goal in and of itself. Good oral and dental hygiene can help prevent bad breath, tooth decay and gum disease and can help you keep your teeth as you get older.

Researchers are also discovering new reasons to brush and floss. A healthy mouth may help you ward off medical disorders. The flip side.? An unhealthy mouth, especially if you have gum disease, may increase your risk of serious health problems such as heart attack, stroke, poorly controlled diabetes and preterm labor.

The case for good oral hygiene keeps getting stronger. Understand the importance of oral health and its connection to your overall health.


What's the connection between oral health and overall health?

Like many areas of the body, your mouth is teeming with bacteria most of them harmless. Normally the body's natural defenses and good oral health care, such as daily brushing and flossing, can keep these bacteria under control. However, without proper oral hygiene, bacteria can reach levels that might lead to oral infections, such as tooth decay and gum disease.

In addition, certain medications such as decongestants, antihistamines, painkillers and diuretics can reduce saliva flow. Saliva washes away food and neutralizes acids produced by bacteria in the mouth, helping to protect you from microbial invasion or overgrowth that might lead to disease.

Studies also suggest that oral bacteria and the inflammation associated with periodontitis a severe form of gum disease might play a role in some diseases. In addition, certain diseases, such as diabetes and HIV/AIDS, can lower the body's resistance to infection, making oral health problems more severe.

What conditions may be linked to oral health?

Your oral health might affect, be affected by, or contribute to various diseases and conditions, including:

  • Endocarditis: Endocarditis is an infection of the inner lining of your heart (endocardium). Endocarditis typically occurs when bacteria or other germs from another part of your body, such as your mouth, spread through your bloodstream and attach to damaged areas in your heart.
  • Cardiovascular disease:Some research suggests that heart disease, clogged arteries and stroke might be linked to the inflammation and infections that oral bacteria can cause.
  • Pregnancy and birth: Periodontitis has been linked to premature birth and low birth weight.
  • Diabetes: Diabetes reduces the body's resistance to infection putting the gums at risk. Gum disease appears to be more frequent and severe among people who have diabetes. Research shows that people who have gum disease have a harder time controlling their blood sugar levels.
  • HIV/AIDS: Oral problems, such as painful mucosal lesions, are common in people who have HIV/AIDS.
  • Osteoporosis: Osteoporosis which causes bones to become weak and brittle might be linked with periodontal bone loss and tooth loss.
  • Alzheimer's disease: Tooth loss before age 35 might be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.
  • Other conditions: Other conditions that might be linked to oral health include Sjogren's syndrome an immune system disorder that causes dry mouth and eating disorders.

Because of these potential links, be sure to tell your dentist if you're taking any medications or have had any changes in your overall health especially if you've had any recent illnesses or you have a chronic condition, such as diabetes.

How can I protect my oral health?

To protect your oral health, practice good oral hygiene every day. For example:

  • Brush your teeth at least twice a day.
  • Floss daily.
  • Eat a healthy diet and limit between-meal snacks.
  • Replace your toothbrush every three to four months or sooner if bristles are frayed.
  • Schedule regular dental checkups.

Also, contact your dentist as soon as an oral health problem arises. Remember, taking care of your oral health is an investment in your overall health.

A compelling case for good habits

If you didn't already have enough reasons to take good care of your mouth, teeth and gums, the relationship between your oral health and your overall health provides even more. Resolve to practice good oral hygiene every day. You're making an investment in your overall health, not just for now, but for the future, too.





A mouth ulcer is the loss or erosion of part of the delicate tissue that lines the inside of the mouth (mucous membrane). Some of the causes include certain drugs, chemicals and infectious diseases such as herpes or thrush. The most common cause is mechanical injury, such as accidentally biting your cheek.

In most cases, mouth ulcers are harmless and resolve by themselves in a few days without the need for medical treatment. Aphthous ulcers are recurring ulcers with no known cause that affect around 20 per cent of the population.

See your doctor if your mouth ulcers don’t clear up within a few days, or if you are troubled by frequent attacks.


Symptoms of mouth ulcers

The symptoms of a mouth ulcer depend on the cause, but may include:

     • A round sore or sores inside the mouth

     • Swollen skin around the sores

     • Tenderness

     • Problems with chewing or toothbrushing because of the tenderness

     • Irritation of the sores by salty, spicy or sour foods

     • Loss of appetite.

A range of causes

Mouth ulcers can be caused by a wide range of factors including:

    • Accidental biting of the cheek

    • Injury from a toothbrush (such as slipping while brushing)

    • Constant rubbing against misaligned or sharp teeth

    • Constant rubbing against dentures or braces

    • Poor oral hygiene

    • Burns from eating hot food

    • Irritation from strong antiseptics, such as a mouthwash

    • Oral thrush infection

    • Herpes simplex viral infection (cold sore)

    • Reaction to certain drugs, such as chemotherapeutic agents

    • Autoimmune diseases (for example, lichen planus

    • Syphilis infection

    • A range of other infections including hand-foot-mouth syndrome

    • Certain diseases including tuberculosis, AIDS, diabetes mellitus and  inflammatory bowel disease

    • Cancer of the lip.


The cause of aphthous ulcers isn’t known

Around one in five adults suffer from recurring bouts of aphthous ulcers, which are mouth ulcers with no known cause. The tongue, gums or mouth lining can be affected. Crops of these tiny off-white ulcers tend to sprout during times of emotional stress or the menstrual period.

This has led some researchers to suggest that aphthous ulcers may be caused by an immune system reaction, since the immune system is affected by stress and hormones. The underlying trigger may be a virus or an allergic reaction. Another name for aphthous ulcer is canker sore.

Complications of mouth ulcers

Untreated, mouth ulcers can occasionally lead to complications, including:

    • Bacterial infection

    • Inflammation of the mouth (cellulitis)

   • Tooth abscess.


Diagnosis of mouth ulcers

It is important to establish the cause of the mouth ulcers. Some of the investigations may include:

 Physical examination – mouth ulcers look different depending on their         cause. For example, if the ulcer is large and yellow, it was most likely         caused by trauma. Cold sores inside the mouth tend to be very               numerous and spread around the gums, tongue, throat and inside of the cheeks. A fever also suggests the ulcers may be caused by a herpes simplex infection.

     • Blood tests – check for signs of infection.

     • Skin biopsy – a small tag of tissue from the ulcer is taken and  examined in a laboratory.


Treatment for mouth ulcers

Most mouth ulcers are harmless and resolve by themselves in a few days. Other types of mouth ulcers, such as the aphthous variety or those caused by herpes simplex infection, need medical treatment. It isn’t possible to speed the recovery of ulcers, but the symptoms can be managed and the risk of complications reduced.

The range of treatment options includes:

     • Avoid spicy and sour foods until the ulcers heal.

     • Drink plenty of fluids.

     • Regularly rinse your mouth out with warm, slightly salted water.

     • Keep your mouth clean.

     • Take pain-killing medication, such as paracetamol.

     • Apply antiseptic gel to the ulcers.

     • Use a medicated mouthwash.

     • Use steroid gels or tablets.

     • Treat aphthous ulcers with anti-inflammatory drugs.

     • Treat ulcers caused by the herpes simplex virus with anti-viral drugs.

     • Treat oral thrush with anti-fungal drugs.

     • Immunosuppressant drugs are sometimes required.


Prevention of mouth ulcers

Suggestions on how to reduce the likelihood of mouth ulcers include:

     • Brush your teeth at least twice every day.

     • Floss regularly.

     • Visit your dentist regularly.

     • Brush your teeth very gently, taking care not to slip with the brush.

     • Eat a well-balanced and nutritious diet.

     • Make sure that underlying conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and inflammatory bowel disease, are managed appropriately.


Where to get help

      • Your doctor

      • Dentist

     • Pharmacist

Things to remember

     • A mouth ulcer is the loss or erosion of the delicate lining tissue of the mouth (mucus membrane).

     • The most common cause is mechanical injury, such as accidentally biting your cheek.

      • In most cases, mouth ulcers are harmless and resolve by themselves in a few days without the need for medical treatment.

      • Aphthous ulcers are recurring ulcers with no known cause that affect around 20 per cent of the population.

     • If your mouth ulcers don’t clear up within a few days, or if you are troubled by frequent attacks, see your doctor.




Removable partial or full dentures require proper care to keep them clean, free from stains and looking their best. For good denture care.

  • Remove and rinse dentures after eating:

Run water over your dentures to remove food debris and other loose particles. You may want to place a towel on the counter or in the sink or put some water in the sink so the dentures won't break if you drop them.

  • Handle your dentures carefully:

Be sure you don't bend or damage the plastic or the clasps when cleaning.

  • Clean your mouth after removing your dentures:

 Use a soft-bristled toothbrush on natural teeth and gauze or a soft toothbrush to clean your tongue, cheeks and roof of your mouth (palate).

  • Brush your dentures at least daily:

Gently clean your dentures daily by soaking and brushing with a nonabrasive denture cleanser to remove food, plaque and other deposits. If you use denture adhesive, clean the grooves that fit against your gums to remove any remaining adhesive. Do not use denture cleansers inside your mouth.

  • Soak dentures overnight:

Most types of dentures need to remain moist to keep their shape. Place the dentures in water or a mild denture-soaking solution overnight. Check with your dentist about properly storing your dentures overnight. Follow the manufacturer's instructions on cleaning and soaking solutions.

  • Rinse dentures before putting them back in your mouth, especially if using a denture-soaking solution:

These solutions can contain harmful chemicals that cause vomiting, pain or burns if swallowed.

  • Schedule regular dental checkups:

 Your dentist will advise you about how often to visit to have your dentures examined and professionally cleaned. Your dentist can help ensure a proper fit to prevent slippage and discomfort. Your dentist can also check the inside of your mouth to make sure it's healthy.

  • See your dentist if you have a loose fit:

See your dentist promptly if your dentures become loose. Loose dentures can cause irritation, sores and infection

Here are a few things you typically should avoid:

  • Abrasive cleaning material:

Avoid stiff-bristled brushes, strong cleansers and harsh toothpaste, as these are too abrasive and can damage your dentures.

  • Whitening toothpastes:

 Toothpastes advertised as whitening pastes are especially abrasive and generally should be avoided on dentures.

  • Bleach-containing products:

Do not use any bleaching products because these can weaken dentures and change their color. Don't soak dentures with metal attachments in solutions that contain chlorine because it can tarnish and corrode the metal.

  • Hot water: Avoid hot or boiling water that could warp your dentures.


How often should I clean my dentures:

It is important to treat your dentures like you would treat your natural teeth. You should keep them as clean as possible so that you don't lose any more teeth, or have inflamed gums or bacterial and fungal infections. We usually recommend that you clean them thoroughly last thing at night and at least one other time during the day, and after eating if you need to.

How should I clean my dentures:

The general rule is: brush, soak and brush again. Always clean your dentures over a bowl of water or a folded towel in case you drop them. Brush your dentures before soaking them, to help remove any bits of food. Using an effervescent (fizzy) denture cleaner will help remove stubborn stains and leave your dentures feeling fresher. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions. Then brush the dentures again, as you would your own teeth. Be careful not to scrub too hard as this may cause grooves in the surface.

Most dentists advise using toothpaste and a small- to medium-headed toothbrush. Make sure you clean all the surfaces of the dentures, including the surface which fits against your gums. This is especially important if you use any kind of denture fixative.

Is there anything I should aavoi:

It is important not to use any type of bleaching product to clean your dentures. Bleaching can lead to weakening of the dentures as well as making them look unsightly. Do not use very hot water to soak your dentures. Again, it can weaken the dentures causing them to break.

What should I do if I have a soft lining:

Some people have sensitive gums and may need a softer lining made for their dentures. If you have one of these special linings, it is important to check with your dental team before using any cleaning products or fixatives, as some products can damage the lining.

What if I have a metal denture:

Some cleaning products can damage metal dentures, so talk to your dental team about how to clean them. If your denture has clasps, you need to take particular care when cleaning to avoid damage.

Should I remove my dentures at night:

Dentists often recommend removing your dentures at night to give your mouth a chance to rest. If you remove your dentures, it is important to leave them in water to prevent any warping or cracking.

Can my dental team clean them:

Some people get a build-up of tartar on their dentures just as they would on their natural teeth. If plaque is not removed properly, it can react with your saliva and harden into tartar. As with your own teeth, you will not be able to remove this tartar completely by yourself, and eventually it can make the denture uncomfortable and unsightly. Your dental team will be able to remove this tartar using a professional cleaning machine.

What can I do about staining:

Like natural teeth, dentures can pick up staining every day. This is especially true if you smoke, or drink a lot of tea, coffee or red wine. In most cases you should be able to remove this staining with regular cleaning. However, more stubborn stains may take a little more cleaning, which your dental team should be able to help with.

How can smokeless tobacco affect my teeth and gums:

Smokeless tobacco is linked to a variety of oral health conditions. Because it is held in one area of the mouth for a long time, the risk is very high.

Like people who smoke, if you use smokeless tobacco you are more likely to have gum disease. Using tobacco causes more bacteria to grow in your mouth and can also cause your gums to become swollen. Smokeless tobacco also causes your gums to shrink (‘recede'), uncovering the roots of your teeth.

Smokeless tobacco users may also be more likely to have tooth decay. This is because the sugars, acids and other ingredients in some chewing tobacco products harm the tooth enamel, and cause holes (‘cavities'). Tooth staining and bad breath are other common problems linked to smokeless tobacco.

Do I still need to see the dentist:

It is important to visit your dental team regularly even if you don't have any of your natural teeth. Dentists do not check just your teeth, but also the soft parts of the mouth, including the tongue and cheeks. These examinations are just as important, so the dental team can spot any infections, mouth conditions or even mouth cancer at the earliest stages. Your dental team will be able to tell you how often you should visit.




Dentures are replacements for missing teeth that can be taken out and put back into your mouth. While dentures take some getting used to, and will never feel exactly the same as one's natural teeth, today's dentures are natural looking and more comfortable than ever.

There are two main types of dentures: full and partial. Your dentist will help you choose the type of denture that's best for you based on whether some or all of your teeth are going to be replaced and the cost involved.

How do Dentures Work?
With full dentures, a flesh-colored acrylic base fits over your gums. The base of the upper denture covers the palate (the roof of your mouth), while that of the lower denture is shaped like a horseshoe to accommodate your tongue.

Dentures are custom-made in a dental laboratory from impressions taken of your mouth. Your dentist will determine which of the three types of dentures described below is best for you.

  • Conventional Full Denture
    A conventional full denture is placed in your mouth after any remaining teeth are removed and tissues have healed. Healing may take several months, during which time you are without teeth.
  • Immediate Full Denture
    An immediate full denture is inserted immediately after the remaining teeth are removed. (Your dentist takes measurements and makes models of your jaw during a prior visit.) While immediate dentures offer the benefit of never having to be without your teeth, they must be relined several months after being inserted. The reason is that the bone supporting the teeth reshapes as it heals, causing the denture to become loose.
  • Partial Denture
    A partial denture rests on a metal framework that attaches to your natural teeth. Sometimes crowns are placed on some of your natural teeth and serve as anchors for the denture. Partial dentures offer a removable alternative to bridges.

How Long Before I Get Used to My Dentures?
New dentures may feel awkward or uncomfortable for the first few weeks or even months. Eating and speaking with dentures might take a little practice. A bulky or loose feeling is not uncommon, while the muscles of your cheeks and tongue learn to hold your dentures in place. Excessive saliva flow, a feeling that the tongue does not have adequate room, and minor irritation or soreness are also not unusual. If you experience irritation, see your dentist.

How Long do Dentures Last?
Over a period of time, your denture will need to be relined, remade, or rebased due to normal wear. Rebasing means making a new base while keeping the existing denture teeth. Also, as you age, your mouth naturally changes. These changes cause your dentures to loosen, making chewing difficult and irritating your gums. At a minimum, you should see your dentist annually for a checkup.

Here are tips for caring for your dentures:

  • When handling your dentures, stand over a folded towel or basin of water. Dentures are delicate and may break if dropped.
  • Don't let your dentures dry out. Place them in a denture cleanser soaking solution or in plain water when you're not wearing them. Never use hot water, which can cause them to warp.
  • Brushing your dentures daily will remove food deposits and plaque, and help prevent them from becoming stained. An ultrasonic cleaner may be used to care for your dentures, but it does not replace a thorough daily brushing.
  • Brush your gums, tongue and palate every morning with a soft-bristled brush before you insert your dentures. This stimulates circulation in your tissues and helps remove plaque.
  • See your dentist if your dentures break, chip, crack or become loose. Don't be tempted to adjust them yourself — this can damage them beyond repair.



Over time, your denture will need to be relined, remade or rebased as a result of normal wear. Rebasing requires making a new base, while keeping the existing denture teeth. As you age, your mouth naturally changes shape. These changes cause your dentures to loosen, making chewing difficult and irritating your gums. At a minimum, you should see your dentist annually for a checkup.

Here are tips to help you care for dentures:

  • When handling dentures, stand over a folded towel or basin of water. Dentures are delicate and may break if dropped.
  • Don't let dentures dry out. Place them in a denture cleanser soaking solution or in plain water when you're not wearing them. Never use hot water, which can cause dentures to warp.
  • Brushing dentures daily will remove food and dental plaque, and help prevent them from becoming stained. An ultrasonic cleaner may be used to care for dentures, but it does not replace a thorough daily brushing.
  • Brush your gums, tongue and palate every morning with a soft-bristled brush before you insert dentures. This stimulates circulation in your tissues and helps remove plaque.
  • See your dentist if dentures break, chip, crack, or become loose. Don't be tempted to adjust them yourself — this can damage them beyond repair.



Full Denture:

A conventional full denture is made and placed in a patient's mouth after the remaining teeth are removed and tissues have healed, which may take several months.

An immediate complete denture is inserted as soon as the remaining teeth are removed. The dentist takes measurements and makes models of the patient's jaws during a preliminary visit. With immediate dentures, the denture wearer does not have to be without teeth during the healing period.

Partial Denture:

A partial denture rests on a metal framework that attaches to your natural teeth. Sometimes crowns are placed on some of your natural teeth and serve as anchors for the denture. Partial dentures offer a removable alternative to bridges.

Oral discomfort is a part of life for many new denture wearers. If it's a problem for you, getting used to dentures and how to wear them well is paramount to your health. Fortunately, you don't need to sacrifice comfort for a great new smile. Try on these tips to help you adjust to your new teeth.

Five Tips For Getting Used To Dentures


1. Set Realistic Expectations

Like braces, your dentures will feel like a foreign object at first. It may even seem embarrassing to learn how to speak or eat naturally while wearing them. It's normal to incur a little shock and discomfort as you're getting used to this, but keep in mind it won't last forever.

As you become accustomed to speaking and eating, patience is key. Depending on the amount of extractions needed, according to the American College of Prosthodontists, expect the area to be sore for several weeks after the surgery. Visits to your dentist to readjust your dentures can help relieve some discomfort in the meantime. Also, consider taking out your dentures every four hours or so as your gums and jaw are still getting used to them.

In this early phase of wear, however, don't forego nutritious foods for more forgiving, processed items. "Lost teeth don't have to mean lost health," assures the American Dental Association (ADA). While chewing smaller portions can make it easier to bite down, start with softer foods that are easy to chew at first and take time to work up to items that are harder – like red meat or apples.

2. Sing Your Speech

Taking a page from professional speech therapists, per Articulate Technologies, music is a great form of speech training. With your new dentures, try singing along to your favorite music during the day. Techniques like singing smooth, fluid phrases at slower rates can help you get used to forming certain words more easily so your dentures won't feel like a hindrance.

3. Exercise Your Cheeks

Your buccinator muscles are your cheek muscles, which help direct the food in your mouth as you prepare to swallow. So, like working out any body part, building these muscles in the first few weeks (or prior to getting your dentures) can give you more control over your meals while eating. Engage these muscles by holding an exaggerated smile for 10 seconds, as recommended in The Arizona Republic, and try this a few times a day.

If you continue to have cheek pain, it can be a sign of ill-fitting dentures as well. Be sure to schedule a dentist visit if you feel any ongoing discomfort.

4. Experiment with an Adhesive

Talk to your dentist or prosthodontist about the best dental creams or adhesives currently available, and experiment with what kind works best for you. A small amount can go along way to reducing early irritation. But don't substitute this adhesive for poorly fitting dentures; always make an appointment with your dentist if you feel you need a more lasting adjustment for a better fit.

5. Follow Your Post-Extraction Plan

One of the most important steps you can take when getting used to dentures is to be on top of your treatment plan. Everyone heals differently, and your mouth will be sore following a given extraction. Depending on whether you have full or partial dentures, it may also take longer for you to feel comfortable wearing them, as dentures come to fit differently as your gumline shifts over time. Therefore, taking any medication as prescribed while attending your appointments for all necessary changes will help cut down on your discomfort during this transition.

Ultimately, don't miss any of your dental visits after the first few months of wearing dentures. Even now that you have new teeth, it's just as important to always keep with yourregular checkups and take care of your oral hygiene at home. Products like Colgate Total®Advanced Pro-Shield Mouthwash, which kills 99 percent of germs right away, will soon make your new smile feel as good as it looks.



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